Exposure of the population in Russian Federation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

"Radiation and Risk", 1996, vol. 7, pp. 39-71


Balonov M.I., Bruk G.Ya., Golikov V.Yu., Erkin V.G., Zvonova I.A., Parkhomenko V.I., Shutov V.N.
Institute of Radiation Hygiene of State Sanitary Inspection, S-Petersburg


The paper presents results of ten-years field studies of levels and features of external and internal exposure doses for the population of Bryansk, Tula and Oryol regions of Russia affected by the radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident. Consideration is given to radio- ecological processes of migration of I-131, Cs-134, Cs-137, Sr-89 and Sr-90 in the biosphere, their intake and changes in human body for the residents of the contaminated areas with different soil conditions and extent of radiation protection. A model has been developed to account for external exposure of the public to gamma-radiation of radionuclides occurring in the environment. The model has been verified against mass-scale measurements of individual absorbed doses by the thermoluminescence method. The paper also dwells on the models for intake of iodine, cesium and strontium radionuclides in human body which have been verified against mass-scale measurements with «whole body counter» and Sr-90 in the section material. Examples are given showing exposure of residents of Russia in 1986-1994 and later. The collective dose from thyroid exposure to incorporated I-131 in Russia and expected cancer thyroid morbidity has been assessed.

Key words
Patterns of formation, internal exposure dose, population, radioactive contamination, the Chernoyl NPP accident, radionuclide migration, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr, biosphere, external radiation model, γ-radiation, radionuclides.


1. Chernobyl: radioactive contamination of natural environments / Ed. Israel Yu.A.Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1990. 296 p.

2. Data on radioactive contamination of the territory of the Russian Federation Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239 + 240 // Radiation and Risk 1994. Issue 3, app. one.

3. Orlov M.Yu., Snykov V.P., Khvalensky Yu.A. and others. Radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus and Russia after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP // Atomic Energy. 1992. T. 72, Iss. 4. pp. 371-376.

4. Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. Annex D. Exposures from the Chernobyl accident. UNSCEAR, 1988 Report, United Nations.New York, 1988.

5. The Chernobyl Papers. V. I: Doses to the Soviet Population and Early Health Effects Studies/Ed. by S. Merwin and M. Balonov. Research Enterprises, 1993.439 p.

6. Buzulukov Yu.P., Dobrynin Yu.L. Release of radionuclides during the Chernobyl accident. In [5], pp. 321.

7. Goronovsky I.T., Nazarenko Yu.P., Nekryach Ye.F. A brief guide to chemistry. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1974.

8. Pitkevich V.A., Shershakov V.M., Duba V.V. Reconstruction of the radionuclide composition of depositions in Russia as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP // Radiation and Risk.1993.Vyp. 3.S. 62-93.

9. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Annals of the ICRP 21 (1-3).

10. Golikov V.Yu., Balonov M.I., and Ponomarev A.V. Estimation of external gamma-radiation doses of the population after the Chernobyl accident. In [5], pp. 247-288.

11. Miller K.M., Kuiper J.L., Helfer I.K. Cs Fallout Depth Distribution in Forest Versus Field Sites: Implications for External Gamma Dose Rates //J. Environ. Radioactivity.1990.V. 12.P. 23-47.

12. Pitkevich V.A., Duba V.V., Ivanov V.K. et al., Method of reconstruction of absorbed external doses of the population living on the territory of Russia polluted by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, Radiation and Risk. 1994. Vol. 4.S. 95-112.

13. Erkin V.G., Balonov M.I., Lebedev O.V. and others. Effective equivalent dose of external gamma-radiation due to the Chernobyl accident // Atomic Energy. 992. Vol. 4.S. 383.

14. Erkin V.G. and Lebedev O.V. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Measurements of External Doses to the Population of the Bryansk Region after the Chernobyl Accident. In [5], p.p. 289-312.

15. Wallstram E. and Wahni T. Measurements of Individual Doses from External Radiation in the Bryansk Region of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Rapport Statens Institute for Stralehygiene. National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. Norway, 1991.

16. Uray I. and Hille R. Mebprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutsch land. Exterue Strahlenbelastung der Bevolkerung in den Bezir ken Brjansk and Gomel der Republiken Rubland und Weiibrubland im Sommer 1992. Forschungszentrum Jtlich GmBH KFA. Jtl-2729, Februar 1993.

17. Borzilov V.A. and Klepikova N.V. Role of meteorological conditions and release composition in formation of radionuclides deposition fields after the Chernobyl accident. In [5], pp. 47-70.

18. Zvonova I.A. and Balonov M.I. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of thyroid effects on inhabitants of Russia following the Chernobyl accident. In [5].

19. Tsyb A.F., Parshkov E.M., Ivanov V.K. and other. The incidence rates of the thyroid gland and their dose dependence in children and adolescents exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident // Radiation and Risk. 1994. Issue 4. pp. 145-153.

20. Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides. ICRP Publication 56. Annals of the ICRP V.20.1989.

21. Gavrilin Yu.I., Gordeev K.I., Ivanov V.K. et al. Features and Results of Determination of Internal Thyroid Exposure Doses for the Population of Polluted Areas of the Republic of Belarus // Bulletin of the Academy of Medical Sciences. 1992. N 2. S. 35-43.

22. Estimation of the absorbed dose in the thyroid gland of persons exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Methodical instructions. Moscow, 1987.

23. Zvonova, I.A., Likhtarev, I.A., Filyushkin, I.V. et al. Oncological risk assessment of human thyroid gland // Bulletin of Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. 1991. N 8. S. 32-35.

24. Shutov V.N. Influence of soil properties on Cs-137 and Sr-90 intake to vegetation. In: "Report of the Working Group Meeting". Madrid, Spain, 1992. P. 11-15.

25. Shutov V.N., Bruk G.Y., Balonov, M.I. et al. Cesium and strontium radionuclides migration in the agricultural ecosystem and estimation of internal doses to population. In [5], pp. 167-218.

26. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: Sources and biological effects. New York: United Nations: Publ. No.E.82.9.8; 1982.

27. Marey A.N., Barkhudarov R.M., Novikova N.Ya. Global Cs-137 and man. M .: Atomizdat, 1974. 168 p.

28. Lebedev O.V. and Yakovlev V.A. Correlation between cesium-137 half-time and age, body mass and height in individuals contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. In [5], pp. 219-239.

29. Balonov M.I., Travnikova I.G. The role of agricultural and natural ecosystems in the internal dose formation in the inhabitants of contaminated area. In: "Proceedings of the first international workshop on past severe accidents and their consequences". Moscow: Nauka, 1990. P. 156-162.

30. Temporary guidelines for the rapid determination of the content of 134Cs and 137Cs in the human body. M., 1987.

31. Reference book on the radiation situation and radiation doses in 1991 of the population of the regions of the Russian Federation exposed to radioactive contamination due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP / Ed. M.I. Balonov. St. Petersburg, 1993. 147 p.

Full text article (in Russian)