Dynamics of radioiodine accumulation on soil and reconstraction of doses from iodine exposure on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

«Radiation and Risk», 1996, vol. 7, pp. 140-191


Makhon’ko K.P., Kozlova E.G., Volokitin A.A.
SPA “Typhoon” of Roshydromet, Obninsk


The paper presents distributions of external doses and absorbed doses from thyroid internal exposure on the territory of the former USSR due to exposure of I-131 and I-132 released into the environment as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Dose assessments were based on measurements of daily depositions of I-131 and Te-132 from the atmosphere made by SPA “Typhoon”. The main body of available measurement data were added with calculations of I-131 depositions from space-time correlations and results of measurements of total betta-activity, Cs-137 etc. Based on these data calculations were made of I-131 and I-132 accumulation on soil surface, exposure dose rate and exposure dose from betta-irradiation I-131 and I-132 from the soil surface, and absorbed thyroid doses from incorporated I-131 and I-132. Estimated errors in calculations are also presented. Besides, the paper includes ganerated maps of I-131 contamination of the soil by 15 May 1986 and distribution of external and internal thyroid exposure doses from incorporated I-131 and I-132 accumulated by 1 september 1986. The dominant radiation load from I-131 and I-132 has been shown to be due to internal thyroid rxposure to incorporated I-131. Given no iodine prophylaxis and restrictions in the diet of the residents, it could have been three orders of magnitude higher the external exposure doses. In different points of the former USSR, the maximum contamination was reported on different dates from 28 April to 3 May 1986. By estimation, of the major cities the highest radiation loads due to I-131 occired in Gomel where by 1 June the exposure dose was 134 mR and the thyroid exposure dose was 166 cSv. The highest radiation loads from Te-132 + I-132 were in Kiev where by 1 June 1986 the thyroid exposure dose was 720 mSv (72 mrem) and the exposure dose 965 mR.

Key words
Accident at the Chernobyl NPP, distribution of exposure doses, external exposure, absorbed dose, internal exposure, thyroid, incorporated, 131I, 132I, soil pollution, radiation exposure.


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