Radiation and epidemiological classification of complexes of the diseases of the human blood circulatory system, associated with the ionizing radiation in low doses

«Radiation and Risk», 2016, vol. 25, No. 4, pp.20-30

DOI: 10.21870/0131-3878-2016-25-4-20-30


Gorski A.I. – Lead. Researcher, C. Sc., Tech., A. Tsyb MRRC, Obninsk, Russia. Contacts: 4 Korolyov str., Obninsk, Kaluga region, Russia, 249036. Tel.: (484) 399-33-90; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
Chekin S.Yu. – Head of Lab. A. Tsyb MRRC, Obninsk, Russia.
Maksioutov M.A. – Head of Lab., C. Sc., Tech. A. Tsyb MRRC, Obninsk, Russia.
Kashcheev V.V. – Head of Lab., C. Sc., Biol. A. Tsyb MRRC, Obninsk, Russia.
Kochergina E.V. – Head of Lab., C. Sc., Med. A. Tsyb MRRC, Obninsk, Russia.
Tumanov K.А. – Head of Lab., C. Sc., Biol. A. Tsyb MRRC, Obninsk, Russia.


The article presents new type of classification of the circulatory system diseases associated with low-dose (< 1 Gy) radiation exposure. For analysis we used data obtained during the follow-up of 101614 Chernobyl clean up workers (liquidators) with average accumulated radiation dose of 0.1 Gy. For analysis of statistical links between radiation doses and structure of diagnosis of the circulatory system diseases we used methods of free a-priori probability distribution of doses and diagnoses. By comparing the structure of circulatory disease diagnoses in the dose group > 0.1 Gy with the same data in the dose group < 0.1 Gy, it turned out that such complex of diseases, as a) “Hypertensive heart disease without (congestive) heart failure” (I11.9) together with “Atherosclerotic heart disease” (I25.1) or “Hypertensive encephalopathy” (I67.4), or “Cerebral atherosclerosis” (I67.2), or “Other forms of angina pectoris” (I20.8); b) “Essential hypertension” (I10) with “Other forms of angina pectoris” (I20.8) or “Cerebral atherosclerosis” (I67.2) occurred more often in liquidators with dose > 0.1 Gy. Development of complex diseases, such as “Hypertensive heart disease without (congestive) heart failure” (I11.9) and “Essential hypertension” (I10) with other circulatory system diseases should be referred to the category of tissue reactions of a human body on the ionizing radiation exposure. For detected radiation-associated complexes of circulatory diseases farther circulatory diseases assessment of radiation risks with models for radiation epidemiological study of stochastic effects needed.

Key words
Ionizing radiation, low doses, Chernobyl liquidators, blood circulatory system diseases, idiopathic hypertension, primary hypertension, structure of diseases, association rules, tissue reactions, stochastic effects.


1. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2006 Report. Vol. I, Annex A: Epidemiological studies of radiation and cancer. New York, United Nation, 2008.

2. Ivanov V.K., Tsyb A.F., Ivanov S.I., Pokrovsky V.I. Medical radiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Russia: estimation of radiation risks. St. Petersburg, Nauka, 2004. 388 p.

3. Ivanov V.K., Tsyb A.F., Petrov A.V., Maksioutov M.A., Shilyaeva T.P., Kochergina E.V. Thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: absence of dependence of radiation risks on external radiation dose. Radiat. Environ. Biophys., 2002, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 195-198.

4. Konogorov A.P., Ivanov V.K., Chekin S.Yu., Khait S.E. A case-control analysis of leukemia in accident emergency workers of Chernobyl. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 2000, vol. 19, no. 1-2, pp. 143-151.

5. Piatetsky-Shapiro G. Discovery, analysis and presentation of strong rules. Knowledge discovery in databases. Eds.: G. Piatetsky-Shapiro, W.J. Frawley. Cambridge, MA, AAAI/MIT Press, 1991, pp. 229-248.

6. Agrawal R., Imieliński T., Swami A. Mining association rules between sets of items in large databases. Proceedings of the 1993 ACM SIGMOD International conference on Management of data (SIGMOD'93). New York, 1993, pp. 207-216. doi: 10.1145/170035.170072.

7. Hahsler M. A Probabilistic Comparison of Commonly Used Interest Measures for Association Rules, 2015. Available at: http://michael.hahsler.net/research/association_rules/measures.html (Accessed 1.08.2016).

8. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health, 10th revision (ICD-10). Vol. 1 (Part 1). Geneva, WHO, 1995. 696 p. (In Russian).

9. Available at: http://www.statsoft.ru (Accessed 1.08.2016).

10. Mietenen O.S. Confounding and effect modification. Am. J. Epidemiol., 1974, vol. 100, pp. 350-353.

11. Doddi S., Marathe A., Ravi S.S., Torney D.C. Discovery of association rules in medical data. Med. Inform. Internet Med., 2001, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 25-33.

12. Ordonez C., Ezquerra, N., Santana C.A. Constraining and summarizing association rules in medical data. Knowledge Information System., 2006, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 259-283.

13. Jensen S. Mining medical data for predictive and sequential patterns. Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Freiburg, Germany, September 3-5, 2001, pp. 1-10.

14. Shantakumar B.P., Kumaraswamy Y.S. Extraction of significant patterns from heart disease warehouses for heart attack prediction. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security (IJCSNS), 2009, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 228-235.

15. Shimizu Y., Kodama K., Nishi N., Kasagi F., Suyama A., Soda M., Grant E.J., Sugiyama H., Sakata R., Moriwaki H., Hayashi M., Konda M., Shore R.E. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003. BMJ, 2010, 340:b5349. doi 10.1136/bmj.b5349.

16. Hauptman M., Mohan A.K., Doody M.M., Linet M.S., Mabuchi K. Mortality from diseases of the circulatory system in radiologic technologists in the United States. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2003, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 239-248.

17. Vrijheid M., Cardis E., Ashmore P., Auvinen A., Bae J.M., Engels H., Gilbert E., Gulis G., Habib R., Hove G., Kurtinaitis J., Malker H., Muirhead C., Richardson D., Rodrigues-Artalejo F., Rogel A., Shubauer-Berigan M., Tardy H., Telle-Lamberton M., Usel M., Veress K. Mortality from diseases other than cancer following low doses of ionizing radiation: results from the 15-Country Study of nuclear industry workers. Int. J. Epidemiol., 2007, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1126-1135.

18. McGeoghegan D., Binks K., Gillies M., Jones S., Whaley S. The non-cancer mortality experience of male workers at British Nuclear Fuels plc., 1946-2005. Int. J. Epidemiol., 2008, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 506-518.

19. Ivanov V.K., Maksioutov M.A., Chekin S.Yu., Petrov A.V., Biryukov A.P., Kruglova Z.G., Matyash V.A., Tsyb A.F., Manton K.G., Kravchenko J.S. The risk of radiation-induced cerebrovascular disease in Chernobyl emergency workers. Health Phys., 2006, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 199-207.

20. Gorsky А.I., Maksioutov М.А., Tumanov K.A., Shchukina N.V., Chekin S.Yu., Ivanov V.K. Nonparametric analysis of radiation risks of mortality among Chernobyl clean-up workers. Radiacionnaja biologija. Radiojekologija – Radiation Biology. Radioecology, 2016, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 138-148. (In Russian).

Full-text article (in Russian)