Malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary system of irradiated individuals (scientific review)

"Radiation and Risk". 2001. Vol. 12, pp.109-120


Biryukov A.P., Ivanov V.K., Maksioutov M.A., Kochergina E.V.
Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk.


The article provides a review of the latest publications dealing with effects of ionizing radiation on organs and tissues of the genitourinary system. The majority of epidemiological studies provide evidence that despite certain radio-resistance of the tissue, malignant neoplasms of this localization can be formed both as a result of irradiation of the small pelvis itself and due to excretion of radionuclides in case of exposure of other tissues, especially given hormonal disbalance caused by radiogenic disturbance of sexual glands functioning.

Key words
Cancer risk, irradiated population, radiation accidents, genitourinary system, ionizing radiation, malignant tumors, liquidators, small pelvis, radio-resistance of tissues.


1. Axel E.M., Dvoyrin V.V. Statistics of malignant neoplasms (morbidity, mortality, trends, socio-economic damage, life expectancy). Moscow: VONTS AMN USSR, 1992. 308 p.

2. Baraboy V.D. From Hiroshima to Chernobyl. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1991.

3. Barkhudarov R.M., Guskov V.M. et al. Influence of the Chernobyl accident on the radiation and hygienic situation on the territory of the USSR: Report of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, Institute of Biophysics. M., 1990.

4. Biological and radioecological aspects of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Proc. of the 1st International Conference, Green Cape, September 10-18, 1990 P.1. Ed. R.M.& nbsp;Aleksakhina et al. M., 1990.

5. The immediate and remote consequences of the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The results of the work of scientific and practical institutions of public health in the elimination of the consequences of the accident in 1986. Proc. of the All-Union Symposium (June 25-26, 1987). Edited by L.A. Il'in, L.A. Buldakov. M., 1987.

6. Buzunov V.A. Main results and tasks of epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident (results of 4-year observations). Bulletin of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. 1991. No. 11. PP. 36-38.

7. Buldakov L.A. Medical consequences of radiation accidents. Chernobyl yesterday, today, tomorrow ... Edited by S.P. Yarmonenko. Moscow, IzdAat Publ., 1994. pp. 61-93.

8. Gofman J. Cancer, caused by irradiation in small doses: an independent analysis of the problem. Trans. fromh English. Moscow, Socio-Ecological Union Publ., 1994.

9. Vasilenko I.Ya., Moskalev Yu.I., Streltsova V.N. Modern problems of carcinogenic effectiveness of small doses of radiation. Overview. Oncology questions. 1985. Vol. 31, no. 4. PP. 3-11.

10. Velichko A.A., Nickberg I.I. Influence of ionizing radiation on public health. Feldsher and midwife. 1990. No. 11. PP. 6-10.

11. Vladimirov V.G. Biological effects with external effects of small doses of ionizing radiation. Military-med. Journal. 1989. No. 4. P. 4446.

12. Vorobyov E.I., Stepanov R.P. Ionizing radiation and blood vessels. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1985. 296 p.

13. Vorobyov B.I., Vorobiev S.V. Ecologically caused diseases: Tez. doc. October 21, 1993 Rostov-on-Don, 1993. P. 61.

14. Gavrilyuk Yu.I. Study of mutagenic loads in populations on the human genotype. Hygiene and sanitation. 1987. No. 12. PP. 36-40.

15. Genetic hazards: Materials of the 37th session of UNSCEAR. A/AC 82/R. 471. Annex F. 1989. PP. 104-114.

16. Hygienic problems of radiation and chemical carcinogenesis, Ed. L.A.& nbsp;Ilyin and V.A. Knizhnikova. M., 1979. PP. 85-91.

17. Global fallout of products of nuclear explosions as a factor of human exposure (Marey AN, etc.). Moscow, Atomizdat Publ., 1980.

18. Grigoryev Yu.G., Popov VI, Shafirkin A.V. Somatic effects of chronic gamma-irradiation. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1986. 200 p.

19. Guskova A.K., Baranov A.E., Barabanova A.V. et al. Acute effects of irradiation in victims of the Chernobyl accident. Med. radiology. 1987. No. 12. PP. 3-18.

20. Data on radioactive contamination of settlements of the RSFSR with cesium-137 and strontium-90 (for March 1990). Obninsk: USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology, 1990. PP. 103-115.

21. Daryalova S.L., Chissov V.I. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. Moscow, Medicine Publ., 1993. P. 175.

22. Dedov V.I., Dedov I.I., Stepanenko V.F. Radiation endocrinology. Moscow, Medicine Publ., 1993.

23. Dvoyrin V.V., Axel E.M., Trapeznikov N.N. Incidence of malignant neoplasms and mortality from them in CIS countries in 1995 M .: ONC RAMS, 1996. P. 11.

24. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: the National Report of Ukraine. Kiev: Minchernobyl, 1996.

25. Malignant neoplasms in the USSR, 19892005. Ed. N.N.& nbsp;Trapeznikova, V.V.& nbsp;Dvoyrina. Moscow: VONTS AMN USSR, 1990. P.147.

26. Ilin LA, Balonov MI, Buldakov LA Ecological features and medical and biological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Med. radiology. 1989. No. 11. PP. 59-81.

27. Ilin L.A., Ivannikov A.G., Popov B.A. Development of ways and means of accelerating the excretion of radionuclides from the body: Report of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, Institute of Biophysics. M., 1990, 42 p.

28. Ilin L.A. Realities and myths of Chernobyl. M.: ALARA Limited, 1994.

29. Ilin B.N. Biological and medical aspects of the action of small levels of radiation. Radiation hygiene. L., 1986. PP. 27-35.

30. Ionizing radiation: Sources and biological effects. NKDAR. Report of the United Nations in 1982, Vol. 2. New York, 1982.

31. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report for 1977 at the UN General Assembly, Vol. I-II-III. New York, 1977.

32. The results of science and technology. Radiation Biology. Moscow, VINITI, 1985. Vol. 5. PP. 88-90.

33. Kavetsky R.E. Interaction of an organism and a tumor. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1977.

34. Carcinogenic substances. Handbook: Materials of the international agency for the study of cancer / Ed. VS Turusov. M .: Medicine, 1987. 333 pp.

35. Kato H. Death from cancer. Trans. from English. M., 46 p.

36. Kvetnoy I.M. Omnipresent hormones. M., 1988.

37. Kiryushkin V.I., Zaitsev Yu.A., Nazarov A.V. A study of the dynamics of the dose-effect relationship in a human population exposed to fission products of uranium, according to hematological and cytogenetic studies. Report. Chelyabinsk, 1980. 71 pp.

38. Britun A.I., Budagov R.S., Wagner E.A. et al.Combined radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, treatment. Ed. A.F. Tsyb, M.N.Farshatov. Moscow, Medicine Publ., 1992. pp. 37-59.

39. Konoplyannikov A.G. Quantitative patterns of radiation damage, protection and recovery of normal and tumor cells: Abstract. Diss. Doct. Biol. sciences. Obninsk, 1980. P. 38.

40. Kosenko M.M. Medical consequences of exposure of the population due to radiation incidents in the Southern Urals: Abstract. Diss. Doct. med. sciences. M., 1991.

41. Latarz R., Tjubiana M. Risk levels of carcinogenesis induced by low-dose irradiation, uncertainties remaining after the publication of the UNSCEAR report, 1988. Med. radiology. 1990. Vol. 35, no. 7. PP. 35-38.

42. Lisovsky I.V., Chernyak S.I. Forecast of the immediate and long-term effects of irradiation with ionizing radiation (Review of the literature). Military Medical Journal. 1988. Issue. 12. PP. 44-46.

43. Luchnik N.V. Formation of aberrations of chromosomes during irradiation of cells at different stages. Radiobiology. 1973. Vol. 13, no. 2. P. 163-173.

44. Lyubchenko P.N., Peskin A.V., Starinsky V.V. et al. Features of cancer morbidity of liquidators and residents of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Tutorial. M., 1997.

45. Medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Information bulletin. Kiev: All-Union Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, 1991.

46. Moiseev A.A. Cesium-137: Environment: Man. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1985.

47. Moskalev Yu.I., Buldakov L.A., Kalmykova Z.N. et al. Problems of the radiobiology of americium-241. Мoscow, Atomizdat Publ., 1977.

48. Moskalev Yu.I. Radiobiology of incorporated radionuclides. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989.

49. Moskalev Yu.I. Remote effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Мoscow, Medicine Publ., 1991.

50. Moskalev Yu.I. Modern ideas about the effect of ionizing radiation on mammals and the problem of rationing. Med. radiology. 1985. No.6. PP. 66-72.

51. Moskalev Yu.I., Zhuravlev V.F. Levels of risk under different conditions of radiation exposure. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1983. pp. 9-14.

52. Napalkov N.P., Merabishvili V.M. The main patterns of mortality in the USSR population from malignant neoplasms. Oncology questions. 1989. № 6. P. 649-657.

53. Nifatov A.P., Buldakov L.A. Distribution, biological effect of radioactive isotopes. Мoscow, Medicine Publ., 1964. PPС. 183-190.

54. NKDAR. Radiation carcinogenesis in humans. New York, 1977.

55. Okeanov A.E., Zhakov I.G., Yakimovich G.V. Medical consequences of radiation exposure. Biomedical aspects of the Chernobyl accident. Analytical and information bulletin of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. 1995. No.2-3. PP. 23-28.

56. Petin V.G., Komarov V.G. Quantitative description of the modification of the radiosensitivity. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989.

57. Pitkevich V.A., Ivanov V.K., Tsyb A.F. et al. Dosimetric data of the Russian medical dosimetric register for liquidators. Radiation and Risk. 1995. Spec. no. 2. PP. 3-44.

58. Pochin E.E. Difficulties in assessing the effect of small radiation doses in humans. M., 1989. 22 p.

59. Pryanichnikova M.B. Ionizing radiation and bladder cancer. Urology and nephrology. 1996. No. 6. PP. 44-45.

60. Publication No. 60 ICRP, Part 2. Trans. from the English. Ed. IB & nbsp; Keirim-Marcus. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1994.

61. Radiation. Doses, effects, risk. Trans. from English. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1988. 77 p.

62. Radiobiological experiment and man. Ed. Yu.I. Moskaleva. Moscow, Atomizdat Publ., 1970. P. 155.

63. Early effects of human exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation: Materials of the 37th session of UNSCEAR. A/AC 82/R. 471. Appendix H. 1988. P. 113.

64. Sayenko A.S. Pelevin N.I. Proc. of the reports of the All-Union Radiobiological Congress. Pushchino, 1989.

65. Socio-economic aspects of the organization of the anticancer struggle. Ed. V.N. Gerasimenko et al. M .: USSR Ministry of Health, 1990. P. 155.

66. Stavitsky R.V., Liass F.M., Kagan I.E. et al. Dose loads on the population of the USSR with X-ray diagnostics and measures to reduce them, Med. radiology. 1990. Vol. 35, No. 8. PP. 5-7.

67. Stukonis M.K. Epidemiology and cancer prevention. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1984. 163 p.

68. Proceedings of the conference of young scientists and specialists of the Ministry of Health of the USSR. Institute of Biophysics. M., 1989. 116 p.

69. Fedorenko B.S., Parfenov Yu.D. Carcinogenic efficacy of high energy protons and gamma radiation. Biological effects of small doses of radiation. M., 1983. PP. 46-48.

70. Khalitov R.I., Tsyb A.F., Spassky B.B. Medical aspects of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Med. radiology and radiation safety. 1994. Vol. 39, no. 3. PP. 6-11.

71. Tsyb A.F., Stepanenko V.F., Pitkevich V.A. etc. Around the Semipalatinsk test site: radioecological situation, radiation doses to the population in the Semipalatinsk region (according to the report of the interdepartmental commission). Med. radiology. 1990. Vol. 35, no. 12. PP. 3-11.

72. Tsyb A.F. Medical consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Honey. Radiology and Radiation Safety. 1998. Vol. 43, no. 1. PP. 18-23.

73. Chernobyl disaster: causes and consequences (expert opinion). In four parts. Minsk: Test, 1993.

74. Chernyak S.I., Zhilyaev E.G., Alferov A.P. Radiation factors affecting people in accidents at nuclear power plants. Military Medical Journal. 1992. No. 2. PP. 52-56.

75. Chissov V.I., Starinsky V.V., Remennik L.V. Malignant neoplasms in the Russian Federation in 1993: Collection of statistical materials, part 1. M .: Moscow P.A. Herzen Scientific Research Institute, 1995.

76. Shabad L.M. On the circulation of carcinogens in the environment. Moscow, Medicine Publ., 1973.

77. Ehrenpreys J.G. Experimental oncology. 1987. Vol. 4, No. 6. PP. 13-18.

78. Yarmonenko S.P. Small doses of "big trouble". Honey. Radiology and Radiation Safety. 1996. Vol. 41, no. 2. PP. 32-39.

79. Acquavella J.F., Wiggs L.D., Waxweller R.S. et al. Mortality among workers at the Pantex weapons facility. Health Phys. 1985. Vol. 48. PP. 735-746.

80. Cardis E., Gilbert E.S., Carpenter L. et al. Direct estimates of cancer mortality due to low doses of ionizing radiation: an international study. Lancet. 1994. Vol. 344. PP. 1039-1043.

81. Cardis E., Gilbert E.S., Carpenter L. et al. Effects of low doses and low doses rates of external ionizing radiation: Cancer mortality among nuclear workers in three countries. Radiation Research. 1995. Vol. 143. PP. 117-132.

82. Carpenter L., Higgins C., Douglas A. et al. Combined analysis of mortality in the three United Kingdom Nuclear industry workforces, 1946-1988. Radiation Research. 1994. Vol. 138. PP. 224-238.

83. Casarett G.W. Radiation histopathology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1980. Vol. 1 160 p.; Vol. 2 176 p.

84. Checkoway H., Mathew R.M., Shy C.M. et al. Radiation, work experience and cause specific mortality among workers at an atomic energy research laboratory. Brit. J. Ind. Ved. 1985. Vol. 42. PP. 525-533.

85. Checkoway H., Pearce N., Crawford-Brown D.J., Cragle D.L. Radiation doses and cause-specific mortality among workers at a nuclear material fabrication plant. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1988. Vol. 127. PP. 255-266.

86. Ferrie B.G., Imrie J.E., Paterson P.J. Osteosarcoma of bladder 27 years after local radiotherapy. J. Roy. Soc. Med. 1984. Vol. 77, no. 11. PP. 126-130.

87. Foulds L. Neoplastic development. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1969.

88. Fuller J., Fritzsche V., Kob D. et al. Histologiche Untersuchungen zur Strahlenreaction der normalen Harnblasenwand eine tierexperimentelle Stude. Radiobiol. Radiother. 1986. Vol. 27, no. 3. PP. 307-313.

89. Genetic effects of radiation (Annex A). Genetic and somatic effects of ionizing radiation. New York: United Nations, 1986. P. 165-262.

90. Gilrbet E.S., Fry S.A., Wiggs L.D. et al. Analysis of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant. Radiation Research. 1989. Vol. 120. PP. 1935.

91. Hinds P.W. Cell growth and development. 1990. Vol. 1. PP. 571-580.

92. Hopoewell J.W., Campling D., Calvo W. et al. Vascular irradiation damage: Its cellular basis and likely consequences. Brit. J. Cancer. 1986. Vol. 53, Suppl. 7. PP. 181-191.

93. Jezic J., Bilenjki D. Veterinaria (SFRJ). 1979. Vol. 28, no. 4. PP. 573-597.

94. Kaplan J., Loftus L. Bladder cancer after pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer. South. Med. J. 1985. Vol. 45, no. 6. PP. 84-87.

95. Kendall G.M., Muirhead C.R., MacGibbon B.H. et al. First Analysis of the National Registry For Radiation Workers: Occupation Exposure to ionising Radiation and mortality. NRPB-R251, Cyilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ, 1992.

96. Krochak R.J., Baker D.G. Radiation nephritis. Clinical manifestations and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Urologia. 1986. Vol. 27, no. 5. PP. 389-393.

97. Law M.F. Radiation-induced vascular injury and its relation to late effects in normal tissues. Advanc. Rad. Biol. 1981. Vol. 9. PP. 37-73.

98. Lushbaugh C.C., Ricks R.C. Some CytoKinetic and Histopathologic Consideration of Irradiated Male and Female Gonadal Tissues. Front. Radiat. Ther. Oncol. 1972. Vol. 6. PP. 228-248.

99. Maisin J.R. Chemical protection against the long-term effects of ionising radiation. International Congress of radiation Research, 7th: Proceedings/Eds. J.J. Broerse et al. Amsterdam, 1983. Abstr, PP. 2-21.

100. Michaelis J., Keller B., Haaf G. et al.. Cancer Causes and Control. 1992. Vol. 3. PP. 255-263.

101. Miichalowski A., Cullen B.M., Burgin J., Rogers M.A. Development of structural renal damage and its guantitation. Brit. J. Cancer. 1986. V. 53, Suppl. 7. P. 295-297.

102. Mould R.F. Chernobyl: The real story. Oxford and New York: Pergàmon Press, 1988.

103. Mould R.F., Tsyb A.F., Ivanov V.K. et al. Chernobyl update on health and the “Sarcophagus”. Current oncology. 1994. N 3. P. 151-162.

104. Neary G.J. Studia Biophysica. 1969. Vol. 18. PP. 1125.

105. Shimizu Y., Kato H., Schull W.J.. Radiation Research. 1989. Vol. 118. PP. 502-524.

106. Shimizu Y., Kato H., Schull W.J. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. Radiation Research. 1990. Vol. 121. PP. 120-141.

107. Tucker M., Fraumeni J. Cancer. 1987. No. 8, Suppl. PP. 2117-2122.

108. United Nation. Genetic and Somatic Effects and Risk of Ionising Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 1988. Report to the General Assambly. New York: United Nations, 1988.

109. Weshler Z., Sulkes a., Kopolovic J. Squamous cell carcynoma of the renal pelvis as late complication of hepatic irradiation. J. Surg. Oncol. 1983. Vol. 22, No. 2. PP. 84-86.

110. Williams M.V. The cellular basis of renal injury by radiation. Brit. J. Cancer. 1986. Vol. 53, Suppl. 7. PP. 257-264.

111. Williams D. Chernobyl, eightyears on. Nature. 1994. Vol. 371. PP. 556.

Full-text article (in Russian)