Computer-information support of analysis of radiation environment in the territories polluted as a result of the Chernobyl accident

"Radiation and Risk", 1993, vol. 3, pp. 39-61


Vakulovsky S.M., Shershakov V.M., Golubenkov A.V., Baranov A.Yu., Borodin R.V., Bochkov L.P., God'ko A.M., Kosykh V.S., Krymova N.V., Meleshkin M.A.
Science and Production Association "Тyphoon" of Roshydmet, Obninsk


Organization and management of data banks generated using data of monitoring radiological situation after the Chernobyl accident is of key importance to health care and rehabilitation on the contaminated areas.

Intervention measures following the accident were based on large-scale studies involving analysis and prediction of radioactive contamination. These studies included measurements of radioactivity in air, soil and water, modeling and prediction of radionuclides transport and transformation. When accomplishing these tasks in SPA "Typhoon" and preparing recommendations on countermeasures, the necessity arose to process large amounts of information and with problems in real time. This made us develop a computer system RECASS. Radioecological Analysis Support System whose operational principles are outlined in the paper. The system is designed to interrelate environmental data and data about air, soil, water and biota contamination with mathematical models for radionuclide behavior in various environment and dose formation using the technology of geographical information systems (GIS).

The major task of RECASS is to collect, classify and present monitoring data as results of objective analysis of radilogical situation as well as visualize its time and space evalution on contaminated areas so that risk assessment could be performed and efficiency of rehabilitation measures evaluated.

The data bank of the radiation monitoring system includes the following data bases: a data base with measurement of radioactive contamination levels in enviromental media (soil, water, air); a meteorological data base; a data base with administrative, economic and demographic data; code dictionaries for encoding different types of information. The structure of the data bank enables data bases to be interrelated using a network model for data presentation which permits a variety of queries to be solved ranging from generalized information about contamination levels in a given administrative or geographic area to data about a spesific type of measurements for an object in the environment. Thus, provision is made for selecting information depending on a specific task of radioecological analysis.

The geoinformation system forming part of RECASS operates with both raster and vector maps. The raster maps are used for presentation of radioactive contamination data and other data, whereas vector graphics serves as input modeling.

Automatic search across map space made up by original maps and zooming. The GIS base generated in RECASS is a multi-layer system with each layer being a specific type of data. By superposition of layers, a model for an area is formed with consideration of a selected set of parameters (soil, vegetation, arable lands etc). The principles of layer-by-layer presentation of geografic information made it possible to develop software providing not mere superposition of various layers, but also interpretation and analysis of results.

RECASS includes a wide range of techniques for objective analysis and presentation of geographically referenced set of measurements and those for administrative entities.

A set of models for radionuclides transfer in various environment incorporated in the allows both short and long-term predictions to be made. The final section demonstrates combined application of RECASS components to reconstract time and spase picture of contamination in the first days after the Chernobyl accident.

Key words
Analysis, forecast, environmental pollution, computer support system, adioecological analysis, data bank, soil, air, water pollution, biota, radiation environment, methods, processing algorithms, radio-nuclide transfer model.


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